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完成研究表格和数据后,如何把结论部分写得出彩呢?

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点击次数:268 更新时间:2021年08月30日08:24:22 打印此页 关闭

Results ≠ Raw Data

在“结论”部分只是向读者描述图标吗?抑或是逐行阅读表格中已有的数据吗?

这并不是研究的重点。

完成研究表格和数据后,如何把结论部分写得出彩呢?

1

The results section should:

⭐Summarize what the data show.

总结数据显示的内容

Point out simple relationships. 指出简单的关系

Describe big-picture trends. 描述大趋势

Cite figures or tables that present supporting data 引用表格中的数据去佐证观点

⭐Avoid simply repeating the numbers that are already available in tables and figures.

避免简单重复在图表中就能获得的数据

我们需要的是一个更高级别的总结。

A higher level summary.

那怎样才能做到更高级别的总结呢?

让我们来看一个例子⬇

下图是一个表格,现在可以默想如果是自己应该如何描述此表格呢?

image.png

Original:

The characteristics of the bad witches and the good witches are shown in Table 1.There was a significant difference in age between the groups.The mean age of the bad witches was 45± 5; and the mean age of the good witches was 36 ± 6.There was no significant difference in gender between the groups,with the bad witches having 85% females and thegood witches having 83% females.BMI was not significantly different between the groups,which both had normal BMIs. Systolic blood pressure and exercise were significantly different. The bad witches had a mean blood pressure of 140± 10, whereas the goodwitches had a mean blood pressure of 120土9. Estimated daily exercise was higher in thegood witches (60 ± 30) than the bad witches(30± 20).Employment was not significantly different between the two groups...

坏女巫和好女巫的特征如表1所示。两组之间的年龄有显著差异。坏女巫的平均年龄为45±5岁;好女巫的平均年龄是36±6岁。两组女巫的性别差异不显著,坏女巫中有85%是女性,好女巫中有83%是女性。两组之间的BMI没有显著差异,两组的BMI均正常。收缩压和运动量有显著差异。坏女巫的平均血压140±10,而好女巫平均血压120土9。据估计,好女巫(60±30)比坏女巫(30±20)的日常锻炼更多。两组之间的就业情况没有显著差异。

Revised:

The witches were, on average, lean and predominantly female (Table1). Bad witches were significantly older, had higher blood pressures,exercised less, and were more likely to smoke than good witches.More bad witches were unemployed, but this difference did not reach statistical significance.

这些巫师平均都很瘦,而且主要是女性(表1)。坏女巫明显比好女巫更老,血压更高,锻炼更少,吸烟的可能性更大。更多的坏女巫失业了,但这种差异没有统计学意义。

我们能够明显的感到两段的差异,那么修改后的版本到底是用了什么技巧呢?

让我们接着往下看:

2

Tips for writing Results:

撰写结论的一些小技巧:

⭐Break into subsections, with headings (if needed)

如果研究结果很复杂,包含很多的表格、数据分析等等,就可以拆分成带标题的几个小节。

⭐Complement the information that is already in tables and figures

如果你真的很想重复在表格里的数字,请一定要提供补充信息,例如:

※Give precise values that are not available in the figure

※Report the percent change or percent difference if absolute values are given in the table

通过比较百分比、倍数来强调研究主体差异的大小。

例如:

Original:

From the 77 women who ran during pregnancy, we observed the average weekly mileage during pregnancy for those who ran to be 20.3±9.3miles. Average running intensity was reported to be 47.9%±21.0% as a percent of non-pregnant running effort.

Revised:

On average, women who ran during pregnancy greatly curtailed their training -cutting their weekly mileage and running intensity to about half of pre-pregnancy efforts.

⭐Repeat/highlight only the most important numbers

可以重复最关键以及最重要的数字

例如:

Original:

A small number (3.9%,3/77) reported sustaining a running injury while pregnant.

Edited:

Only 3 (3.9%) reported sustaining a running injury while pregnant.

⭐Don't forget to talk about negative and control results.

正确分析负面结果(negative results)

⭐Reserve the term "significant" for statistically significant.

“结论”部分与“研究方法”和“讨论”部分不同,在结论部分描写数据时应避免使用“significantly”。

⭐Reserve information about what you did forthe methods section.

在结论部分不应包含你做了什么,而是你发现了什么。

⭐In particular, do not discuss the rationale for statistical analyses within the Results section.

不要把选择数据模型的理由放在结论中,别让结论部分成为讨论。

⭐Reserve comments on the meaning of yourresults for the discussion section.

结论部分:展示数据,

讨论部分:数据含义

3

What verb tense do I use?

在结论部分,应使用怎样的时态呢?

⭐Use past tense for completed actions:

过去时表达已经完成的动作

We found that...

Women were more likely to...

Men smoked more cigarettes than...The average reaction time was...

⭐Use the present tense for assertions that continue to be true:

现在时表达正确的推断

what the tables show...

what you believe...

what the data suggest...

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